Toeic grammar

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  1. TOEIC Grammar Grammaire conỗue par le Groupe ESC Chambộry / La Citộ des Langues 15/09/2006 v 1.00 1
  2. Nouns Tip Check whether the noun is countable or uncountable! Countable or Countable nouns (people, animals, objects, plants, units of measurement) uncountable can be counted , used with the indefinite article and be plural . nouns: • two men; a dog; cars definitions Uncountable nouns (substances, materials, abstract ideas, languages) cannot be counted, used with the indefinite article and are singular . • water; money Uncountable The following nouns are always uncountable : nouns advice leisure baggage, luggage money damage news equipment progress fun traffic furniture weather information work knowledge • The information you gave me is incomplete. • She is making good progress with her German. A piece of Uncountable nouns can be made countable by combining them with: • expressions like a piece of , a can of , a slice of a piece of information, a can of soda, a slice of bread • other nouns leisure activities, homework assignments Both countable Many nouns can be used as countable and uncountable nouns, usually with and a difference in meaning : uncountable Uncountable Countable paper (material) a (news)paper business (all business transactions) a business (a company) space (the universe) a space (a blank) work (employment) a work (of art) time (hours, days ) a time (an occasion) • They have some work to do on the acoustics. • If the global economy continues to flourish, people will continue buying works of art. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 2
  3. Nouns, Suite Tip Check whether it is the right plural! Singular and Note the singular and plural forms of the following nouns. plural Singular Plural irregular -f(e) : half, life, self -ves : halves, lives, selves child childr en foo t, too th fee t, tee th mouse mice alumn us , syllab us alumn i, syllab i analys is , cris is analys es , cris es criteri on , phenomen on criteri a, phenomen a man, wom an men, wom en always singular always plural news belongings, clothes, contents, the United States of America, earnings, goods, people, customs, nouns in -ics : athletics, media mathematics, economics one thing, two parts : pants, shorts, jeans, glasses, binoculars, scissors same as singular means, series, species, crossroads, headquarters, fish, sheep, data, aircraft Example : • The news is disturbing. • Tracking bank transactions as a means of pursuing potential terrorists has been central to US intelligence. Hundred, When dozen , hundred , thousand , million , billion are used to convey the thousand idea of: • a definite number , the pattern is: number/several + hundred, thousand, million + plural noun twenty thousand dollars Economists were alarmed by the deficit, which was several billion worse than they had expected. • an indefinite number, the pattern is : ∅∅∅ + hundred s, thousand s, million s + of + plural noun I've told you hundreds of times. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 3
  4. Nouns, Suite Forms of Mr Smith a man address Mrs Smith a married woman Miss Smith an unmarried woman Ms Smith a married or unmarried woman These forms of address have to be followed by a family name. Abbreviations Abbreviation Expression/word in full Abbreviation Expression/word in full ASAP as soon as possible VAT Value Added Tax RSVP Rộpondez SVP Bros Brothers /s/ attn to the attention of Co Company p.p. per proxy; per pro.(on behalf of) Corp Corporation i.e. id est (that is) Inc Incorporated p.a. per annum Ltd Limited e.g. exempli gratia (for example) PLC Public Limited Company PTO Please Turn Over ATM Automatic Teller Machine AM ante meridiem CEO Chief Executive Officer PM post meridiem IT Information Technology # or No number MBA Master of Business Administration POB post office box R&D Research and Development @ at PR Public Relations misc miscellaneous HR Human Resources lb or lbs pound(s) PC Personal Computer oz ounce(s) GMT Greenwich Mean Time id the same mph miles per hour NB nota bene (take note) 15/09/2006 v 1.00 4
  5. Determiners Definition A determiner is a word that is normally used at the beginning of a noun- phrase. Determiners include : • articles. There are two types of articles: − the definite article: the − the indefinite article: a/an • possessive adjectives • demonstrative adjectives Tip Never leave a singular countable noun standing alone. You must use a determiner. Articles + The rules for the use of articles with countable and uncountable nouns nouns are the following : Nouns a / an the no article singular countable a car the car plural countable the cars cars uncountable the money money • When we want to talk about things in general we usually use a plural or uncountable noun with no article . It has the same meaning as all . Jobs are scarce. (All jobs are scarce) Our everyday life has changed thanks to technical progress. (thanks to all technical progress) • The can be used before an uncountable noun when the latter is used with a qualifying phrase or has been qualified previously. The music you can hear is country music I asked to see the manager. The + place- The definite article is used with place-names as follows: names The ỉ • seas, oceans, rivers: • singular countries, states: The Mediterranean, The Atlantic, France, Texas The Rhine • continents: Asia • plural countries: The Netherlands • lakes: Lake Geneva • countries with common nouns: • islands: Greenland The United Kingdom • towns: Sidney • mountain chains, island groups: The Rockies, The West Indies • areas: The Far East Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 5
  6. Determiners, Suite Idiomatic uses Some nouns can be used either with an definite article or not as follows: of articles ∅∅∅ article go to prison/jail; be in prison/jail go to school; be in/at school go to/be in class go to, be in/at college on campus, off campus be at/go to university be in/go to hospital (GB) be in/go to the hospital (US) go to/be at church be in bed, go to bed, stay in bed make the bed be/stay (at) home, go home, in the home come/get/arrive home, leave home at sea, go to sea on the sea, by the sea in town, to go into town, to leave town be at work, go to work, start/finish/leave work eat breakfast/have lunch/after dinner eat a big breakfast/have a quick lunch/after a delicious dinner The indefinite The indefinite article is article: • a + words beginning with a consonant sound pronunciation • an + words beginning with a vowel sound but: a unanimous decision a European country a uniform a UFO is an Unidentified Flying Object half an hour an honest man An MBA is a Master in Business Administration. The indefinite The indefinite article a/an is used article: some • before the names of professions : uses Mr Bates is a lawyer. Ms Atkinson, a renowned novelist, will attend the presentation. • in expressions of measurement / price / speed / ratio ( = per in writing): How much is it a kilo? The rent is $500 per week. Four times a day. 60 miles an hour. This, that are used as follows: Number Near (in time or space): here Further away (in time or space): there singular This man That day plural These men Those days Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 6
  7. Determiners, Suite Some, any Some and any are followed by plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns and are used as follows: some cars any cars some money any money Some Some is used: • in affirmative sentences: He's got some books from the library. • in offers and requests : Could I have some books, please? Why don't you take some books home with you? • in questions where the answer yes is expected : Did he give you some tea? (= I'm sure he did.) Any Any : • in negatives (not any = no ; hardly any; never any): There isn't any reason to complain. • in questions : Have they got any children? • in if-sentences : If there are any problems with his work, tell me. • in affirmative sentences where any = ' no matter which ', ' no matter who ', 'no matter what ': You can borrow any of my books. Some, any: Their compounds , which are always singular , are: their • someone/somebody, something, somewhere . I have something to say. compounds • anyone/anybody, anything, anywhere . Does anybody have the time? You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind. • no one/nobody, nothing, nowhere . Homeless people have nowhere to go at night. • (everyone/everybody, everything, everywhere ). They can be followed by else . There’s nothing else to do . Expressions of The chart below shows which expressions of quantity are used with: quantity Uncountable nouns (singular) Plural countable nouns much many an amount of a number of little few a little a few less fewer several both a couple of • How much money do you have? • Both students have passed their exams. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 7
  8. Determiners, Suite Little/ a little Little /few : − mean “not a lot, hardly any”: Few tourists visited the area because of the oil spill. − have a negative meaning: The project failed because too little money was spent on it. A little /a few − mean “some”: I need only a little help to finish this work. − are more positive : For a few dollars more, you can walk up to the top. − can be used with only : Only a little progress has been made. Most Most can be followed by: • a noun : Most trainees haven't done much work. • of + determiner + noun : Most of my friends will come to the party. + object pronoun : Most of them have work to do. Each/every Each and every are similar in meaning and are both followed by a singular noun. Each Every • separates (one by one) • generalizes (all) Each child received a present. Every child in the world deserves affection. • is used for a small number (two or more) • is used for a large number (three or more) • can be a pronoun • also means how often something happens Each of the children received a present . and is therefore followed by a plural noun He had a break every two hours. All/whole All and whole are similar in meaning: All Whole • + uncountable noun means complete, • comes after determiner + singular countable entire noun and means complete, entire all my life, all the money, all cheese my whole life • + plural countable noun generalises • + plural countable noun = complete, entire All families suffered during the war. Whole families were deported. All day/evening = the whole day/evening = the complete day/evening from beginning to end Every day/evening/three weeks says how often something happens All the time = always Every time = each time, on every occasion The whole time = from beginning to end 15/09/2006 v 1.00 8
  9. Pronouns Definition A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a more precise noun or noun- phrase. Tip Check who or what it refers to! Personal Personal pronouns can be classified as follows: pronouns Subject Object Reflexive Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns I me myself my mine you you yourself/your selves your yours he him himself his his she her herself her hers it it itself its its we us our selves our ours they them them selves their theirs • A subject pronoun must be used in complement position after the verb to be: It was he who told us. • Only subject pronouns can be used in a subject position: My brother and I are going to join the same fraternity. Relative Relative pronouns are both : pronouns − subjects or objects of verbs − like conjunctions, joining clauses together Function Person Thing who which subject I'm sure I know the person who New York, which attracts many tourists, is often served us. crowded. (who/whom) which , ( that ) Have you seen his film, which was excellent by object The woman (who/whom) you met the way? at the party is an engineer. Have you seen the film (that) he was telling us about? whose whose possessive My friend, whose flat is being The computer, whose keyboard is broken, has redecorated, is staying at home. been sent to the after-sales service. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 9
  10. Pronouns, Suite What / which When a relative clause : • refers to the whole sentence before it, we use which Luke pushed his colleague into the swimming pool at the staff party, which seemed to amuse everyone. • has no antecedent and means ‘ the thing(s) that’, we use what What I want to do is make a fresh start. That-clause A that-clause can be the subject of a sentence : (The fact) That + subject + verb + verb subject That she wanted to resign didn't surprise me. 15/09/2006 v 1.00 10
  11. Adjectives and adverbs Tip Check that the adjective is placed before the noun Remember that adjectives are always singular Tip Check that the adverb is often placed : − before or after a verb − before an adjective − before another adverb Remember that most adverbs are formed as follows: adjective + ly slow slow ly final fina lly Adjectives or Adjectives only adverbs costly, friendly, likely, lively Both adjectives and adverbs daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, early, quarterly, hourly, nightly, fast, straight, well Adjectives Adverbs • free (without payment) You can come in free. free • freely (without limit) He could speak freely about it. • hard He works hard. hard • hardly (= almost not) He hardly knows her. • high Planes fly high. high • highly (=very much) a highly paid job • late He left work late. late • lately (=recently) What have you been doing lately? • prettily She danced prettily. pretty • pretty (= rather) Temperatures are pretty high. • wide Open the door wide. wide • widely (in many different places) He has traveled widely. Verbs + The following (state) verbs can only be followed by adjectives not adverbs: adjective be, seem, become, appear, prove, look, sound, taste, feel, smell (verbs of senses) It sounds good to me. Chances of survival seem hopeless. Note : The adjectives alike , alive , alone , afraid , asleep can only appear after the above verbs and never directly in front of the nouns they describe. Ads all look alike. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 11
  12. Adjectives and adverbs, Suite Adjectives: -ed Be careful when using the following adjectives: or -ing A story can be You can feel interesting interested amusing amused annoying annoyed boring bored confusing confused disappointing disappointed exciting excited tiring tired Hyphenated When expressions of measurement , amount and quantity are used as adjectives hyphenated adjectives , they are: − singular − formed as follows: article + cardinal number - singular noun + noun Example : • It is a three-hour drive to Chicago. • He had no change for a fifty-dollar bill. • They will invest in a new ten-ton truck. Such/so Such is used before nouns , with or without adjectives, to emphasize. It may not be such a bad idea. So is used before adjectives , without nouns, to emphasize. It’s no longer so economical to live in the country. Expressions with such and so can be followed by that-clauses ; then they express cause and result . His business became so successful (that) he moved to larger headquarters. Enough Enough is used as follows: enough + noun adjective/ adverb + enough and is followed by the infinitive Example : • Did you have enough time to finish the report? • He wasn't experienced enough for the job. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 12
  13. Adjectives and adverbs, Suite Tip If you have “than”, you need to find the comparative! Comparative The comparative is used to compare two things and it is followed by than . and superlative The conference was more interesting than people thought. Costs have risen faster than incomes. The superlative is used to compare more than two things and is used with the definite article the . You should choose the most appropriate solution that is offered. You are among the earliest to discover the new fares. Comparative and superlative adjectives are formed as follows : Adjective Comparative Superlative one-syllable -er -est hard hard er hard est two-syllable ending in -y -er -est early earl ier earl iest other two-syllable and long more most tiring more tiring most tiring intelligent more intelligent most intelligent some two-syllable more or -er most or -est quiet more quiet quietest clever cleverer most clever simple simpler most simple Irregular Some adjectives have irregular comparatives and superlatives as shown in comparatives/ the following table : superlatives Adjective Comparative Superlative good better best bad worse worst far further/farther furthest/farthest little less least much more most Example : • The situation should get better soon. • How much further is it? • The new model uses less gas. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 13
  14. Adjectives and adverbs, Suite A lot, much Before the comparatives of adjectives you can use : with much, a lot, a little, a bit, far, any, no, rather, slightly, significantly comparatives If we leave any later than 5.00 we'll get caught in rush hour. As as We use as as to say that people or things are equal in some way. Copies are almost as expensive as originals. Note: • as much as , as many as I didn't get as much money as I had hoped. • twice/ three times as as A US worker is 10 times as expensive as a worker in Mexico. • the same as The look is the same as it would have been back in the 60s. Double We can use double comparatives comparatives • er and er : Our nation gets fatter and fatter every year. • more and more + adjective : The problem gets more and more difficult to solve the further you go. to say that something is increasing all the time. The the We can use comparatives with the definite article the The more you say, the worse the situation will be. The more, the merrier. to say that two changes happen together . One, some, One , some , another , other can be adjectives and pronouns and are used as another, other follows: Adjective Pronoun one one another + singular noun another the other the other some other + plural noun (the) others the other • Have you met Frank’s associates? I've met one. I didn't know he had another (associate). He has three others (three other associates). • It is essential to complete this form before filling out the other (form). Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 14
  15. Adjectives and adverbs, Suite Adjectives + Some prepositions combine with adjectives : preposition Adjective Preposition amazed, surprised good, excellent at bad, terrible delighted, (dis)pleased, (dis)satisfied, disappointed bored, fed up with crowded keen, short on known, famous for responsible interested in equal, similar superior, inferior to committed, dedicated married, engaged, related used, accustomed kind, nice, (im)polite, generous, good to sb rude, mean of sb to do sth different from (GB)/than (US) excited about worried, upset sorry about sth angry, furious with sb for doing annoyed sth jealous, envious, suspicious aware, conscious afraid, frightened, scared, terrified fond full of capable, incapable proud, ashamed tired typical short The + The is used with adjectives to represent a class of persons; the meaning is adjectives plural. Example : • The French eat frog legs. • The young are worried about the future. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 15
  16. Adjectives and adverbs, Suite Tip Check that the adverb does not separate the verb and its object. He speaks English fluently. Adverbs in Adverbs that go in mid-position express: mid-position • frequency : never, rarely, always • certainty : probably, certainly, obviously • degree : nearly, almost, quite The word order for adverbs in mid-position is as follows : Tense Subject Auxiliary Adverb Verb Complement verb To be in simple tenses I am usually right Perfect tenses He has already seen this film Modal auxiliary verbs We can sometimes play tennis Simple tenses She hardly cooks dinner Passive with He has never been for his novels 2 auxiliary verbs remembered Only / even Only and even go just before the words they emphasize. It will only take (only) five minutes. They have even forgotten (even) his name. Sometimes / Sometimes : sometime • means occasionally • answers the question How often? Law may be sometimes hard for the individual. Sometime • means at one moment in the future • answers the question When? Let's have dinner together sometime. 15/09/2006 v 1.00 16
  17. Verbs and tenses Tip Always make sure that : • there is a verb in the sentence • that this verb is conjugated. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs are used: • to make different tenses − be + -ing : continuous tenses He is working. − be + -ed (past participle) : passive He was contacted. − have + -ed (past participle) : perfect tenses We have phoned them. − do (questions and negatives in simple tenses) He didn’t say anything. • to express meanings such as possibility, advisability, and necessity ( modal auxiliary verbs ) can, could will, would shall, should + verb (base form) They will come. may, might must, ought to English tenses There are 12 tenses in English. Simple tenses Continuous tenses Simple present I listen Present continuous I am listening I don’t listen You aren’t listening Does he listen? Is she listening? Simple past I listened Past continuous I was listening (preterite) She didn’t listen She wasn’t listening Did they listen? Were that listening? Simple future I will listen Future continuous I will be listening They won’t listen Will you listen? Perfect tenses Perfect continuous tenses Present perfect I have listened Present perfect continuous I have been listening He hasn’t listened Have you listened? Past perfect I had listened Past perfect continuous I had been listening Future perfect I will have listened Future perfect continuous I will have been listening Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 17
  18. Verbs and tenses , Suite State and Action verbs can be continuous . State verbs cannot usually be action verbs continuous : believe, belong, consist of, depend on, deserve, exist, know, like, mean, own, need, prefer, remember, seem, understand, want But some of them can be used either for a state or for an action: State verbs (simple tenses) Action verbs (simple or continuous) I think he'll come (believe) I'm thinking about it (ponder, consider) I have a dog (own) I'm having a hot dog. I see what you mean (understand) I'm seeing the doctor (meet) You look nice I'm looking at a picture Time markers The following time markers very often imply the use of: referring to the present Present simple Present continuous • always, usually, often, sometimes, • still, currently, right now, at the hardly ever, rarely, never moment, presently • every day/week • today, this morning • once/twice a week to express an action at or around the • on Sundays time of speaking to express habitual actions Prices are currently hovering around They make reservations only on $400. Mondays. • tomorrow, tonight, in two days to express the immediate future He is leaving tomorrow for Texas. Time markers The following time markers very often imply the use of: referring to the past Present perfect Past • ever, never, yet, already, before, • a date almost, nearly, just • yesterday (morning ), last meaning at any time up to now, by night/weekend , at that time, now once, at one time, formerly, • so far, recently, lately, all my previously, in those days, then, life referring to a period up to after, before now • for • since + a point in time used to say how long something (It is when the action started) lasted • How long? , for + a period of time • duration + ago up to now The manager called before the How long have you been a teacher? meeting. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 18
  19. Verbs and tenses, Suite Sequence of Note: tenses Main clause Since-clause Present perfect tense Past tense Since Ms Sutton was hired, competition among employees has increased. Verbs often Some verbs are often confused : confused Infinitive Past tense Past participle beat beat beaten bite bit bitten feel felt felt fall fell fallen fill filled filled file filed filed lay laid laid lie lay lain lie lied lied raise raised raised rise rose risen strike struck struck stroke stroked stroked English ≠≠≠ Some verbs are regular in one language and irregular in the other : American Infinitive English American burn, dream, lean, learn, burn t – burn t, dream t – regular smell, spell, spill, spoil dream t, lean t – lean t wake woke - woken regular / irregular fit regular fit - fit quit regular quit - quit wet regular wet – wet prove regular proved - proven dive regular dove - dived get got - got got – gotten Tip When the verb is in the past, check whether it is the right form of the past (regular or irregular). When the verb is in a perfect tense, check whether it is the right form of the past participle (regular or irregular). Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 19
  20. Verbs and tenses, Suite Irregular verbs Infinitive Past tense Past participle ar ise /ai/ ar ose ar isen /i/ ride /ai/ rode ridd en /i/ rise /ai/ rose risen /i/ dr ive /ai/ dr ove dr iven /i/ wr ite /ai/ wr ote wr itt en /i/ take took taken mist ake mist ook mist aken undert ake undert ook undert aken sh ake sh ook sh aken bear /e/ bore borne /b orn sw ear /e/ sw ore sw orn tear /e/ tore torn wear /e/ wore worn become bec ame become come came come run ran run beg in beg an beg un dr ink dr ank dr unk ring rang rung sing sang sung sink sank sunk spr ing spr ang/sprung spr ung sw im sw am sw um ben d ben t ben t len d len t len t sen d sen t sen t spen d spen t spen t smel l smel t smel t buil d buil t buil t los e los t los t bet bet bet bid bid bid burst burst burst cast cast cast cost cost cost cut cut cut hit hit hit hurt hurt hurt let let let put put put set set set shut shut shut spread spread spread upset upset upset Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 20
  21. Verbs and tenses, Suite Infinitive Past tense Past participle bl ow bl ew /u/ bl own gr ow gr ew /u/ gr own thr ow thr ew /u/ thr own kn ow kn ew /u/ kn own fly fl ew /u/ fl own draw dr ew /u/ dr awn withdraw withdr ew /u/ withdr awn break br oke br oken choose ch ose ch osen freeze fr oze fr ozen speak sp oke sp oken forget forg ot forg ott en steal st ole st olen weave wove woven bring br ought / ot / br ought / ot / buy bought / ot / bought / ot / fight fought / ot / fought / ot / seek sought / ot / sought / ot / think th ought / ot / th ought / ot / catch caught / ot / caught / ot / teach taught / ot / taught / ot / deal /i:/ deal t /e/ deal t /e/ mean /i:/ mean t /e/ mean t /e/ burn burn t burn t learn learn t learn t cl ing cl ung cl ung dig dug dug fl ing fl ung fl ung shr ink shr ank/shrunk shr unk sp in sp un sp un sw ing sw ung sw ung st ick st uck st uck st ing st ung st ung str ike str uck str uck hang hung hung eat ate eat en give gave giv en forgive forg ave forgiv en forb id forb ade forbidd en hide /ai/ hid /i/ hidden /i/ bite /ai/ bit /i/ bitten /i/ beat /i:/ beat /i:/ bea ten /i:/ fall fell fall en Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 21
  22. Verbs and tenses, Suite Infinitive Past tense Past participle feed /i:/ fed /e/ fed /e/ lead /i:/ led /e/ led /e/ meet /i:/ met /e/ met /e/ read /i:/ rea d /e/ rea d /e/ shoot sh ot sh ot hear hear d hear d flee fle d fle d find found found wind /ai/ wound wound st an d st oo d st oo d underst an d underst oo d underst oo d lay /ai/ laid /e/ laid /e/ say /ai/ said /e/ said /e/ pay /ai/ paid /e/ paid /e/ cr ee p cr ept cr ept fee l felt felt kee p kept kept kn ee l kn elt kn elt sl ee p sl ept sl ept sw ee p sw ept sw ept wee p wept wept sh ow show ed show n sow sow ed sow n mow mow ed mow n get got got sh ine sh one sh one win won won sit sat sat hold held held sell sold sold tell told told have had had make made made leave left left slide /ai/ slid /i/ slid /i/ be was/were been go went gone lie lay lain see saw seen Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 22
  23. Verbs and tenses, Suite Future perfect, The future perfect refers to a completed action in the future . It is used: function • to express an action that will have happened before a specific time in the future I'll have been here for six months on June 23 rd . • with a time expression using by + a point in future time . You will have finished your work by next week. Tip Always check the sequence of tenses when you have two verbs in the same sentence. Sequence of Conjunctions of time are not usually followed by will or would ; we use a tenses with time present (simple, continuous or perfect) or past tense instead. conjunctions as as long as as soon as before the moment by the time now that once since so long as until when whenever while Example : • They haven’t decided what they will do when their contracts expire. • By the time we got to the headquarters, the meeting had already started. Sequence of If clause Main clause tenses in present tense present tense/imperative conditional If water freezes , it becomes solid. sentences If you feel sick, just leave . present tense future tense If you are from another country, you will probably have to pay income tax. past tense* conditional tense If I had a lot of money, I would travel around the world. past perfect tense conditional perfect tense If I had known the truth, I would have trusted him. * When the verb to be is used, the form were is used for all persons. If I were you, I wouldn't follow his advice. Conditional Other conjunctions can introduce conditional clauses like: conjunctions even if even though provided (that) as long as unless You could stay longer provided he paid rent. Unless you receive a fax by Tuesday, carry on with your transaction Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 23
  24. Verbs and tenses, Suite Tip Check that the last word in the passive construction is a past participle. Passive tenses The passive of an active tense is formed as follows : to be + past participle (of active verb) To be is in the same tense as the active verb. The trainee broke the new photocopier → The new photocopier was broken by the trainee . agent Tense Active Passive present simple breaks is broken present continuous is breaking is being broken past simple broke was broken past continuous was breaking was being broken present perfect has broken has been broken past perfect had broken had been broken future will break will be broken future perfect will have broken will have been broken conditional would break would be broken perfect conditional would have broken would have been broken modals can break can be broken Tip If you see the agent by + noun (except time expressions), check that the verb is in the passive. The gerund The gerund is formed as follows: verb (base form) + ing and can be • subject Complaining is a national pastime. • subject complement What I prefer is negotiating on my own terms. • direct object They should quit complaining. • object of a preposition He’s good at managing sales teams. Verbs + gerund admit deny consider (as direct object) contemplate imagine finish mind resent dislike appreciate enjoy mention postpone discuss suggest avoid risk involve keep miss practice can't stand can't help Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 24
  25. Verbs and tenses, Suite Verbs + accuse sb of adjust to agree with preposition + apologize (to sb ) for approve of disapprove of gerund argue about believe in blame sb for comment on complain about concentrate on congratulate sb on consist in deal with decide against depend on devote oneself to feel like forget about forgive sb for insist on look forward to object to pay sb for plan on prevent sb from stop sb from see about suspect sb of talk about thank sb for think about/of worry about Verb + The following (state) verbs : adjective + be seem, look, sound, feel (verbs of senses) preposition + become get appear prove gerund can only be followed by adjectives or adjective + preposition combinations : accustomed to afraid of angry at ashamed of capable of incapable of concerned about content with delighted at excited about famous for good at grateful to sb for interested in lazy about proud of responsible for sorry about sure of/about surprised at tired of worried about Possessive In formal English possessive adjectives and genitives can be used with the - adjective/noun ing form as follows: verb + possessive adjective/genitive + -ing form + gerund Do you mind my smoking? (Informal: Do you mind me smoking?) I don't approve of Mike's driving. (I don't approve of Mike driving.) Special It’s no use It’s (not) worth There’s no point (in) expressions + To have fun To have a good/hard time gerund To spend time/money To waste time/money To have difficulty/trouble/a problem To go hiking/jogging (sports) To go shopping/sightseeing (recreational activities) They had a hard time negotiating a settlement. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 25
  26. Verbs and tenses, Suite Infinitive of The infinitive is used to talk about people’s purposes , the reasons why they purpose do things. The same idea can be expressed by using in order to or so as to . Example : • She went to university ( in order ) to obtain a degree. • They have lowered prices ( so as ) to boost consumption. Verbs + The verbs below are followed by the infinitive : infinitive • afford, deserve • agree, consent, care ≠≠≠ refuse • appear, happen, seem, pretend • arrange, prepare, plan • ask, beg, claim, demand • decide, volunteer, choose ≠≠≠ hesitate • expect, hope, wait • fail, neglect • learn • manage, struggle • mean • need, want, wish • offer, promise, swear • tend • threaten The European Union threatened to file a lawsuit against this software company. Verbs + object + The verbs below are followed by an object + the infinitive : infinitive • advise, encourage, motivate, instruct, persuade, convince, teach (how), tell (how), recommend, warn, caution • allow, entitle, permit, enable • appoint, hire • invite, request, require, challenge • compel, command, direct, force, oblige, order, urge, press, cause • forbid • remind • show how • tempt The human resources manager encouraged them to take courses in computers. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 26
  27. Verbs and tenses, Suite Too/enough + Expressions with too or enough are followed by the infinitive . infinitive Example : • People are working too hard to care about their egos . • Junior managers should hire secretaries competent enough to cover their blunders. (adjective + enough) • They all have enough money to foot the bill. (enough + noun) Verb + question The structure verb + (object) + question word is followed by the word + infinitive . infinitive Example : The tourist asked us where to stay. Verbs + gerund Either the gerund or the infinitive can follow some verbs, with little or infinitive difference in meaning. • attempt, intend, propose (the infinitive is more common after them) • begin, start (when used in the continuous, the verbs that follow are in the infinitive) ( understand /realize /see are always in the infinitive after them) • can't bear, can’t stand • cease ≠≠≠ continue • hate ≠≠≠ love, prefer (the infinitive is more common when we refer to one particular occasion) • try • remember, forget, stop, go on, regret (the gerund refers to something that happened earlier, the infinitive to something that will happen ) Example : • Children reaching the pre-teen ages - 11 plus - start to prefer spending to saving. • I don't remember saying that. Verbs + verb The verbs below are followed by the infinitive without “to” (verb base) : base will would shall should can could may might must had better would sooner would rather Note: would rather that + past tense They would rather that the statistics were guaranteed by an independent body. Such liberalization may produce instability but not growth. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 27
  28. Verbs and tenses, Suite Verbs + that + The verbs and phrases below are followed by that + verb base verb base (= subjunctive) : • ask, demand, request • command, order, require • propose, recommend, suggest • It is important / vital / essential / necessary / imperative / desirable The nouns derived from the above verbs are also followed by the verb base: demand, request, requirement, proposal, recommendation, suggestion Example : We ask that our representatives be on time when they have appointments. It is essential that we listen to the whole lecture. He accepted the suggestion that he work less. Verbs + object The verbs below are followed by an object + verb base : + verb base • help (US), let, make • see , watch , feel , notice , hear to say that all of an action was witnessed (+ object + gerund to say that part of an action was witnessed) Example : • Let us help you change the way you work. Let us help you to change the way you work.(GB) • We watched the team play several times. I heard him complaining about his working conditions. Have To have (which has less force and authority than get ) is followed by • an object + past participle when it means to cause something to be done • an object + verb base when it means to cause something or somebody to do something Example : Could I have my car serviced by tomorrow? Could you have your mechanic repair my car as soon as possible? Get To get is followed by • an object + past participle when it means to cause something to be done • an object + infinitive when it means to cause something or somebody to do something Example : Find a reputable travel agent and get him to do the dealing for you. You should be able to get the work done by another firm at no extra cost. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 28
  29. Verbs and tenses, Suite Tell/say Tell and say are similar but there are differences, which are the following: • tell − somebody that − somebody to do − a lie, the truth, a story, the time • say − that − to somebody that − : ‘ ’ − to somebody : ‘ ’ Example : • I told my boss that I wanted a day off. • Could you tell me the time, please? • She said that she was to leave for two weeks. Leave/let Let and leave are often confused. • let = allow • leave = depart, go They let him leave the office at 9.00. Make or do You do : You make : • the dishes, the washing up • progress, headway • your homework, a paper, • an agreement, a decision an assignment • an offer, a promise • some research • a discovery • your work, your duty • an attempt, an effort • good ≠ harm • an excuse, an exception • business • a suggestion • your best • inquiries • (somebody) a favor • a phone call, a photocopy, • your hair an announcement • 100 mph • a mistake, a fuss • the shopping, the ironing, • a noise the laundry • arrangements • something, anything, nothing • a journey • the accounts • money, a profit, a fortune • a statement • love • a bed, a fire, a cake • war ≠ peace • an appointment 15/09/2006 v 1.00 29
  30. Subject-verb agreement Subjects Various structures may be used for subjects : • Noun : Prices are rising at their fastest pace in six years. • Pronoun : They can be used anywhere. • Clause : − Wh- structures : What they found surprised me. − Yes/no structures: Whether it rains or not doesn’t matter. − “The fact that” structures (the fact is often omitted): (The fact) that the contract was signed was a relief. • Gerund (or gerund phrase) : Swimming is good exercise. Working 10 years in industry was enough. • Infinitive (or infinitive phrase) : To sleep in is a luxury. To be able to speak Arabic is very important. Tip Always make sure that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number . The basic principle is singular subjects need singular verbs and plural subjects need plural verbs . Subject + Subject Example singular verb every Every student has to register. each Each of the participants is responsible. what What is needed is some good advice. one One of our cars has broken down. a/the (large) amount of The amount of work I got through in July was double the amount that I did in June. whoever Whoever is responsible should be present. whatever Whatever suits you? amount of money Three million dollars is a huge sum of money. distance 30 miles is not that far. weight 2.2 pounds is one kilo. length of time Two weeks is enough time to finish the contract. sums and products of Two and two is four. mathematical processes more than one More than one trainee has tried this. along with A phone book along with other books was piled on as well as his desk. together with The manager as well as his associates is going to prison. Jim, together with Tom, is going sailing. either, neither Neither of the two traffic lights is working. Which color do you prefer? Either is fine with me. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 30
  31. Subject-verb agreement, Suite Everybody, The indefinite pronouns anyone , everyone , something , nothing , nobody are nothing is always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs . Everyone has done his or her homework. Nothing was left. Note : After words with one or body , we use he , she , him , her and his . Somebody has left her purse. Anyone is welcome, as long as he or she behaves appropriately. Subject +plural Subject Example verb and The manager and his associates are going to jail. both and If both the father and the mother work, who will care for the kids? several , many, Several in the building have complained about the fumes. both, few Many were unhappy with having to stand. used as pronouns Are both of us invited, or just you? adjectives The Irish are about 20 years behind America when it representing a comes to crime-prevention consciousness. class of people In Nepal the disabled are deprived of their basic human rights. a group of A group of us are going to the theater tonight. a couple of A couple of men are waiting outside. Verb agrees Some words like indefinite pronouns are singular or plural depending on with the noun what they are referring to . (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such words. Subject Example a lot of There is a lot of work. There are a lot of tasks. half of, a part of, The majority of British citizens in Lebanon have dual a percentage of, nationality. a majority of, The majority of the population is Hispanic. the rest all, any, some, Some of the work has been done. more, most (of) Some of the returns have been filed. which Which is to be posted? (which one) Which are to be posted? (which ones) none of None of the engines are working . None of the food is fresh. Note: • A large number of = several / many, the verb is plural A large number of tourists get lost because of that sign. • The number of refers to the group, the verb is singular The number of lost tourists has increased recently. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 31
  32. Subject-verb agreement, Suite Verb agrees If your sentence has a positive and a negative subject and one is plural, the with positive other singular, the verb should agree with the positive subject . subject The directors but not the president have decided not to work on Valentine's Day. It is not the directors but the president who decides this issue. Verb agrees When nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the with the closer number of the verb . noun Subject Example either or , Either the manager or the artists have the right to neither nor terminate the agreement. Not only but Not only our own departments, but also the whole also organization has been affected. There/here is There and here are followed by the verb to be and the subject . The verb agrees with the subject that follows. Here is the vicar. There are children in the park. There can be used with all tenses of to be . Was there an answer to that question? Tip Beware of modifiers that get between a subject and its verb, they must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb. The Bank of England , which was originally founded in 1694 by a group of private bankers to raise money for the crown and was given independent power to set interest rates in 1997 by the chancellor, Gordon Brown, is the UK’s central bank. 15/09/2006 v 1.00 32
  33. Prepositions Definition A preposition is a word like in, out, off normally followed by a noun or a pronoun. Multiple word Here is a list of the most common multiple word prepositions : prepositions • according to, in accordance with • as regards, as to, in connection with = regarding, about • ahead of • as a consequence of, as a result of, because of, on account of, due to, owing to, thanks to • apart from, except for, with the exception of • by means of, by way of = using • contrary to • in addition to, on top of • in comparison with, compared with • in contrast to/with • in favor of, to the benefit of, all for, on the side of • in front of • instead of, rather than • in the event of, in case of, for fear of • on behalf of • prior to, previous to • regardless of • together with, along with, as well as Between/among They have the same meaning but the difference is the following: between + two nouns among three or more nouns/ plural noun Example : • She was sitting between the local representative and his boss. • The profits were equally divided among the stockholders. Beside/besides The difference is the following: beside = by the side of, next to, near besides = in addition to Example : • The woman standing beside the lecturer is the new accounts manager. • He holds numerous non-executive directorships besides his Ê400,000 job at Man PLC. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 33
  34. Prepositions, Suite In/on/at Preposition Time Space at home + time : at work at 12.00 at an address at lunchtime at the office at night at school AT at Christmas + a certain point : at Easter at the crossroads/bus-stop at the moment at the top at present at the bottom at the same time at the end at breakfast on a street + days and dates : on a street corner on Saturday on 13 May 1984 on a coast ON on a river on Friday afternoon + a means of public on time = punctual, not late transportation : on the train/bus/ship/plane + longer periods: month, year, season in a room in March in a building in 1997 in a corner of a room in winter in the 1990s in a car IN in a taxi + parts of the day : in a boat in the morning(s) in a country + time in the future : in a state in a week in a province in a moment in a county in time = soon enough <> too in a city late Despite = in Despite and in spite of have the same meaning. spite of Example : Breakfast cereals still contain high levels of fat, salt and sugar, in spite of / despite manufacturers' claims to have improved the healthiness of their products. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 34
  35. Prepositions, Suite During / for / • During is a preposition used to say when something happened while • For is a preposition used to say how long it took • While is a conjunction (+ subject + verb) used to introduce a background situation Example : • It rained for five days during our holiday. • We didn't get much sunshine while we were on holiday. Like or as • Like is a preposition − used to compare things − synonymous with: similar to, the same as, for example He is a broker like most of his friends. • As is either a preposition − used to talk about the jobs, roles and functions of people and things − synonymous with: in the position of, in the form of They see the soaring oil prices as a threat to the world economy. or a conjunction ( + subject + verb; + prepositional phrase) − used to compare things You should have replied as I told you. On Monday, as on Tuesday, we start at 9.00. Note : • the preposition unlike (= not like) to show contrast Unlike traditional newspapers, free newspapers offer advertisers unlimited space. • the adjective alike to show similarity but used only after state verbs We are not related despite the fact that we look alike. By / until / till / • By shows a time limit from to The River Road bridge over Interstate 495 is on schedule for completion by October. • Until (usually used at the beginning of a sentence) or till shows an action or situation that continues up to a certain time The sale of the franchise doesn't close until October. • From to/until shows the beginning and end of a period of time. He conducted at least 25 fraudulent refund transactions from October to January. Continued on next page 15/09/2006 v 1.00 35
  36. Prepositions, Continued Preposition + on purpose; by mistake/chance/accident noun in my opinion; from my point of view on holiday; on business; on a journey/trip/tour for sale; on the market in advance; up to date; out of date on the whole; in general on television; on the radio/the phone/the Internet in writing; in pen/biro/felt-tip/ink/pencil in cash; by check/credit card on the way (during the journey); in the way (blocking the way) in the end (finally, after a long time); at the end (when something stops) by car, train, air ; on foot Prepositions of space from to in (into) out (of) through across under under below above on over around along on(to) up down off 15/09/2006 v 1.00 36
  37. Sentence structure Word order The word order in a sentence is usually as follows : (time) subject verb object manner place time (Last night) The chairman delivered his speech vehemently at the conference hall last night Tip Parallel structures express ideas of equal importance and are used in a series. Check that in those parallel structures the same grammatical structures are used. A secretary's duties include writing, typing, organizing and filing. Parallel Parallel structures should be used after correlative conjunctions : structures with both and both and as well as correlative not only but also not but conjunctions either or neither nor but and The training course consists of both theory and practical instruction. Parallel Parallel structures should be used with comparisons: structures with • comparative than comparisons • as as • the same as • similar to Renting those apartments costs about the same as leasing them. Note : After comparative structures, that (of) and those (of) are used instead of repeating a noun. The team's overall performance is better than that of any individual could possibly be. Cardinal Cardinal numbers (one, two, three ) are used as follows: numbers ∅∅∅ + noun + cardinal number Proceed to gate four. Wait for me on platform 2. Note : Ordinal numbers come before cardinal numbers as follows: the + ordinal number + cardinal number + noun He had trouble adjusting for the first two weeks. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 37
  38. Sentence structure, Suite Ordinal Ordinal numbers are formed as follows: numbers first six th eleven th twent ieth thirt ieth second seven th twel fth twenty-first fort ieth third eight h thirteen th twenty-second fift ieth four th nin th fourteen th twenty-third hundred th fi fth ten th fifteen th twenty-fourth thousand th They are used as follows: the + ordinal number + noun Take the third street on the left. Note : The order for dates is as follows: the + ordinal number + of + month (GB) My birthday is the twenty-second of August. month + (the) + ordinal number Independence Day in the US is July (the) fourth. Question tags A question tag is used: • at the end of the sentence • to encourage agreement or to verify a statement Main clause Question tag Subject + positive verb negative auxiliary verb + subject pronoun? The salesmen performed really well, didn’t they? Subject + negative verb positive auxiliary verb + subject pronoun? The manager won’t succeed, will he? Tip In the question tag, check that the pronoun refers to the subject of the main clause. Questions The word order in a question is as follows : (Question word) + auxiliary verb + subject + verb ? Where will they be living? Do you speak Spanish ? What and Who can be the subject of the verb. In that case, the verb is conjugated as in a positive statement . What may happen? Who is coming to the seminar? Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 38
  39. Sentence structure, Suite Inversion Inversion is used in the following cases: Case Inversion auxiliary verb (were/had/should) + subject + verb Omission of if Were she my daughter (if she were ), I would tell her. Had I known (if I had known ), I wouldn’t have come. Should you change your mind (if you change ), let me know. neither/nor/so + auxiliary verb + subject Neither, nor, so I don’t like aggressive ads. - Nor /neither do I. (= I don't either ) I really like jazz music. - So do I. (= I do also/too ) negative adverbial expression + auxiliary verb + subject After negative adverbial expressions Under no circumstances can we leave the room. Never had I felt like this. Tip Make sure there is no inversion in indirect questions. The pattern should be: main clause + question word + subject + verb I don't remember what her name is. Conjunctions Conjunctions are : • used to join clauses together • used to show the relationship between the ideas in the clauses • followed by a subject and a verb Cause/effect Place Condition Contrast Manner as where even if / though although as because wherever if even though as if in order in case though as though now that once whereas in that that provided (that) while since providing so that unless whether (or not) Tip When you have two verbs in a sentence, it implies there are two clauses. Then check there is either a semi-colon, a relative pronoun or a conjunction that links those two clauses. Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 39
  40. Sentence structure , Suite No longer / no • No longer/not any longer are used with time more • No more /not any more are used with time, quantity or degree • The no structures are used before the verb or after the verb “to be” • The not any structures are used at the end of the sentence Example : • Mr. Jones doesn't work here any more/longer • He no longer fitted the job. • There's no more paper in the photocopier. Discourse • Linking regarding, as regards, as for markers • Contrasting on the one hand ≠ on the other hand, however, nevertheless, (and) yet, in comparison with, compared with, conversely • Contradicting on the contrary, contrary to • Adding moreover, in addition, furthermore, what's more • Talking about purpose in order to, so as to • Providing reasons owing to, due to, on account of, because of, thanks to, • Explaining results consequently, as a result, therefore, so, then, thus, hence • Generalizing on the whole, in general, broadly speaking, generally speaking, by and large, to some extent • Giving more exact information namely, that is to say, that is, in other words • Summing up to sum up, in a word, in short, briefly, in conclusion, finally, lastly, all in all, to conclude, accordingly How The word order is: • in questions : How (+ adjective/adverb) + auxiliary verb + subject + verb? How could I meet him? How far can people go in the name of research? • in exclamations : How + adjective/adverb + subject + verb! I know how nice he really is. He will receive a percentage based on how well they sell. 15/09/2006 v 1.00 40
  41. English or American: differences Grammar Here are the main differences in grammar: differences British English American English He has just seen his former colleague. He just saw his former colleague. Have you got a problem? Do you have a problem? It fitted the mood of the moment. It fit the mood of the moment It's important that he should come . It's important that he come . Mortgages have got more costly for Mortgages have gotten more some homeowners. costly for some homeowners. Spelling Notice the differences: differences English words American words • -our • -or colour, honour, humour color, honor, humor • -tre • -ter centre, theatre, metre center, theater, meter • -ogue • -og catalogue, analogue, dialogue catalog, analog, dialog • -ise • -ize nationalise, organise nationalize, organize • -isation • -ization specialisation, standardisation specialization, standardization • -ence • -ense licence, defence license, defense • an ae sthesia, gyn ae cology • an esthesia, gyn ecology • alumin iu m • alumin um • to practi se • to practi ce • progr amme • progr am • gr ey • gr ay • jewe lle ry • jewe lry • pyjamas • pajamas • specia li ty • specia lty • stor ey • stor y • tyre • tire • dough nut • donut • dr augh t • dr af t • che que • che ck • aero plane • air plane Ce sujet continue page suivante 15/09/2006 v 1.00 41
  42. English or American: differences, Suite Vocabulary English American chips french fries spirits liquor tin can ground floor first floor flat apartment public toilet rest room lift elevator cupboard closet rubbish garbage, trash cashpoint ATM banknote bankbill engaged tone busy tone mobile phone cell phone managing director, MD CEO rise (in salary) raise CV resume surname last name post mail postcode zip code town centre downtown driving licence driver's license petrol gas railway railroad pavement sidewalk underground subway lorry truck taxi cab to hire to rent return round trip single one-way motorway highway, freeway autumn fall holiday vacation rubber eraser trousers pants handbag purse shop store queue stand in line pharmacy, chemist drugstore shopping centre mall film movie bill (restaurant) check estate agent realtor 15/09/2006 v 1.00 42
  43. Table of Contents Nouns 2 Tip 2 Countable or uncountable nouns: definitions 2 Uncountable nouns 2 A piece of 2 Both countable and uncountable 2 Tip 3 Singular and plural 3 Hundred, thousand 3 Forms of address 3 Abbreviations 3 Determiners 3 Definition 3 Tip 3 Articles + nouns 3 The + place-names 3 Idiomatic uses of articles 3 The indefinite article: pronunciation 3 The indefinite article: some uses 3 This, that 3 Some, any 3 Some 3 Any 3 Some, any: their compounds 3 Expressions of quantity 3 Little/ a little 3 Most 3 Each/every 3 All/whole 3 Pronouns 3 Definition 3 Tip 3 Personal pronouns 3 Relative pronouns 3 What / which 3 That-clause 3 Adjectives and adverbs 3 Tip 3 Tip 3 Adjectives or adverbs 3 Verbs + adjective 3 Adjectives: -ed or -ing 3 Hyphenated adjectives 3 Such/so 3 Enough 3 Tip 3 Comparative and superlative 3 Irregular comparatives/ superlatives 3 A lot, much with comparatives 3 As as 3 15/09/2006 v 1.00 43
  44. Double comparatives 3 The the 3 One, some, another, other 3 One, some, another, other can be adjectives and pronouns and are used as follows: 3 Adjectives + preposition 3 The + adjectives 3 Tip 3 Adverbs in mid-position 3 Only / even 3 Sometimes / sometime 3 Verbs and tenses 3 Tip 3 Auxiliary verbs 3 English tenses 3 State and action verbs 3 Time markers referring to the present 3 Time markers referring to the past 3 Sequence of tenses 3 Verbs often confused 3 English ≠ American 3 Tip 3 Irregular verbs 3 Future perfect, function 3 Tip 3 Sequence of tenses with time conjunctions 3 Sequence of tenses in conditional sentences 3 Conditional conjunctions 3 Tip 3 Passive tenses 3 Tip 3 The gerund 3 Verbs + gerund (as direct object) 3 Verbs + preposition + gerund 3 Verb + adjective + preposition + gerund 3 Possessive adjective/noun + gerund 3 Special expressions + gerund 3 Infinitive of purpose 3 Verbs + infinitive 3 Verbs + object + infinitive 3 Too/enough + infinitive 3 Verb + question word + infinitive 3 Verbs + gerund or infinitive 3 Verbs + verb base 3 Verbs + that + verb base 3 Verbs + object + verb base 3 Have 3 Get 3 Tell/say 3 Leave/let 3 Make or do 3 Subject-verb agreement 3 Subjects 3 Tip 3 15/09/2006 v 1.00 44
  45. Subject + singular verb 3 Everybody, nothing is 3 Subject +plural verb 3 Verb agrees with the noun 3 Verb agrees with positive subject 3 Verb agrees with the closer noun 3 There/here is 3 Tip 3 Prepositions 3 Definition 3 Multiple word prepositions 3 Between/among 3 Beside/besides 3 In/on/at 3 Despite = in spite of 3 During / for / while 3 Like or as 3 By / until / till / from to 3 Preposition + noun 3 Prepositions of space 3 Sentence structure 3 Word order 3 Tip 3 Parallel structures with correlative conjunctions 3 Parallel structures with comparisons 3 Cardinal numbers 3 Ordinal numbers 3 Question tags 3 Tip 3 Questions 3 Inversion 3 Tip 3 Conjunctions 3 No longer / no more 3 Discourse markers 3 How 3 English or American: differences 3 Grammar differences 3 Spelling differences 3 Vocabulary 3 15/09/2006 v 1.00 45