Công nghệ thực phẩm - Bài 15: Công nghệ sản xuất chocolate

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  1. 8/1/2015 BÀI 15 CÔNG NGH S N XU T CHOCOLATE Chocolate Production Theobroma cacao - the Cocoa Tree • Grows best in tropical rainforest. • Mostly reaches 7.5 metres in height. • Has broad leaves 25 cm long with pale coloured flowers from which pods grow. • Tree bears fruit when 3 to 4 years old. • Each tree yields 20-30 pods per year. • Mostly cultivated from Indonesia, Malaysia & Ghana. 1
  2. 8/1/2015 Types of cocoa pods Forastero criollo Trinitario Hardy and Not much hardy with vigourous, produces Cultivated hybrids of its mild or weak beans with strongest the other two. chocolate flavour. flavour. Grown mainly in the Widely grown in Grown in Indonesia, Caribbean, but also West Africa and Central and South in Cameroon and Brazil. America. Papua New Guinea. Harvesting of Cocoa Trees • Harvesting takes place twice a year from november to january and from may to july. • Fruit is hand-picked to protect the trees. • Once harvested, the pods are opened and their seeds are removed. 2
  3. 8/1/2015 Fermentation • Beans and the pulp are laid in the fermentation boxes. • Fermentation produces heat requiring the beans to be stirred. • Germination in the cacao bean is killed by the high temperatures produced during the fermentation process. • After the 5 days process of fermentation, beans are brown and have a better flavor. Drying • After fermentation, the water present in the beans is dried up to convert them into chocolate. • Cacao beans are often dried in the sun, which can happen on tarps, mats, or patios. • Humidity in the beans is decreased down to 6-8% for storage and export. • Once dried, they can be stored for 4-5 years. • After sorting and bagging, the cocoa beans are then loaded on ships to be delivered to chocolate manufacturers. 3
  4. 8/1/2015 Roasting • In the manufacturing plant, the selected beans undergo extensive sampling and testing procedure. • Then roasting takes place at usually 210 F for about 10-35 minutes. • The beans are roasted to darken the colour and to further bring out the flavour characteristics of the cacao. Winnowing • The process of removing shells from around the beans. • The dried beans are cracked and a stream of air separates the shell from the nib, the small pieces used to make chocolate. • The nibs, key ingredient, contain approximately 53 percent cocoa butter, depending on the cacao species. Grinding • The beans are then usually grounded in a milling or grinding machine called a melangeur. • The nibs are grounded into a paste called chocolate liquor. • A roll refiner or ball mill is used to create heat that melts and distributes the cocoa butter and to further reduce the particle size of cocoa mass. • Flavor of the chocolate bar depends on the percentage of cocoa butter in the liqour. • With more grinding and the addition of sugar, lecithin, milk or cream powder or milk crum and spices such as vanilla depending upon the manufacturer, chocolate is made. 4
  5. 8/1/2015 Bt cacao Ph i tr n Nhào tr n X lý nhiêt Rót khuôn Làm l nh Bao gói Bo qu n chocolate 1. Ph i tr n Các ch t ph i tr n B cacao 35% Bt cacao Sa cho vào là s a c hay s a bôt ??? ư ng Sa 65% Vani Lexithin Mc ích -To d ch huy n phù ng u -To h ư ng v th m ngon CHOCOLATE • Chocolates were originally made directly from cocoa nibs by grinding them in presence of sugar • Chocolates is now made from nonalkalized cocoa liquor by incorporating sucrose, cocoacocoa butter ,, aroma or flavouring substances and occasionally, other constituents (milk ingredients , nuts , coffee paste , etc.) • The ingredients are mixed , refined , thoroughly conched and finally , the chocolate mass is molded. Product Cocoa Skim milk Cocoa Total Butter fat Sugar mass(%) powder(% butter(%) fat(%) (milk)(%) (%) ))) Baking 33 -50 - 5-7 22 -30 - 50 -60 chocolate Milk cream 10 -20 8-16 10 -22 33 -36 5.5 -10 35 -60 chocolate Whole milk 10 -30 9.3 -23 12 -20 28 -32 3.2 -7.5 32 -60 chocolate Skim milk 10 -35 12.5 -25 15 -25 22 -30 0-2 30 -60 chocolate icings 33 -65 5-25 35 -46 25 -50 5
  6. 8/1/2015 Cho lexithin vào có tác d ng gì ??? - Gi m d o c a chocolate, c i thi n tính dòn -Tng tính n nh c a chocolate - Làm gi m nh t, cho phép s d ng t l b cacao th p h n 2. Nhào tr n Mc ích: T ng h ư ng v và n nh k t c u chocolate Thông s k thu t - Nhi t : 60-80 0C - Th i gian: vài gi n vài ngày 6
  7. 8/1/2015 3. X lý nhi t Mc ích: - Chocolate k t tinh u và n nh tinh th b cacao - Hóa l ng d ch chocolate tr ư c khi rót khuôn 4. Rót khuôn Mc ích: t o hình cho chocolate Yêu c u khuôn - Làm b ng thi c ho c nh a -B m t nh n bóng - Làm nóng tr ư c khi rót 7
  8. 8/1/2015 Molding • After the chocolate is properly tempered • Addition of other ingredients CONCHING • Conching is a process of mixing the cocoa mass. • It is continuously mixed at a certain temperature to develop flavor remove moisture and break down large pieces. This can take hours to days depending on the desired outcome. • The finest chocolates are conched for 5 days. Tempering • The next step is tempering the chocolate is slowly heated and cooled allowing the cocoa mass to solidify and stabilize. • Without tempering the chocolate would separate and would not harden well. 8
  9. 8/1/2015 • Chocolate cools when it becomes solid • labeled, packed to be shipped to and to be eaten. Storage • Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. • Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17 °C. THANK YOU 9