Bài giảng Kinh tế vĩ mô nâng cao - Chương 17: Đầu tư

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  1. 04/01/2016 C H A P T E R 17 Đầu tư MACROECONOMICS SIXTH EDITION N. GREGORY MANKIW PowerPointđ Slides by Ron Cronovich â 2007 Worth Publishers, all rights reserved Trong chương này, chỳng ta sẽ học . Cỏc lý thuyết tỡm cỏch giải thớch mỗi một loại hỡnh đầu tư . Lý giải tại sao đầu tư cú quan hệ ngược chiều với lói suất . Yếu tố gỡ làm dịch chuyển đường đầu tư . Tại sao đầu tư tăng trong giai đoạn bựng nổ và giảm trong giai đoạn suy thoỏi CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 1 Ba loại hỡnh đầu tư . Đầu tư tài sản cố định chi tiờu về trang thiết bị và cơ sở hạ tầng để sử dụng trong sản xuất. . Đầu tư bất động sản mua sắm nhà mới. . Đầu tư hàng tồn kho CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 2 1
  2. 04/01/2016 Đầu tư ở Mỹ và cỏc bộ phận của đầu tư Billions 2000 Total investment of 1996 1750 dollars Business fixed investment 1500 Residential investment 1250 Change in inventories 1000 750 500 250 0 -250 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 3 Understanding business fixed investment . The standard model of business fixed investment: the neoclassical model of investment . Shows how investment depends on . MPK . interest rate . tax rules affecting firms CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 4 Two types of firms . For simplicity, assume two types of firms: 1. Production firms rent the capital they use to produce goods and services. 2. Rental firms own capital, rent it to production firms. In this context, “investment” is the rental firms’ spending on new capital goods. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 5 2
  3. 04/01/2016 The capital rental market real rental Production firms price, R/P capital must decide how supply much capital to rent. Recall from Chap. 3: Competitive firms capital rent capital to the demand point where (MPK) MPK = R/P. equilibrium rental rate K K capital stock CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 6 Factors that affect the rental price For the Cobb-Douglas 1 production function, YAKL the MPK (and hence R 1 MPK A L K equilibrium R/P ) is P The equilibrium R/P would increase if: . K (e.g., earthquake or war) . L (e.g., pop. growth or immigration) . A (technological improvement, or deregulation) CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 7 Rental firms’ investment decisions . Rental firms invest in new capital when the benefit of doing so exceeds the cost. . The benefit (per unit capital): R/P, the income that rental firms earn from renting the unit of capital to production firms. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 8 3
  4. 04/01/2016 The cost of capital Components of the cost of capital: interest cost: i PK, where PK = nominal price of capital depreciation cost:  PK, where  = rate of depreciation capital loss: PK (a capital gain, PK > 0, reduces cost of K ) The total cost of capital is the sum of these three parts: CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 9 The cost of capital Nominal cost P i P  P P P i  K of capital KKK K PK Example: car rental company (capital: cars) Suppose PK = $10,000, i = 0.10,  = 0.20, and PK/PK = 0.06 Then, interest cost = $ 1000 depreciation cost = $2000 capital loss = $600 total cost = $2400 CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 10 The cost of capital For simplicity, assume PK/PK = . Then, the nominal cost of capital equals PK(i +  ) = PK(r + ) P and the real cost of capital equals K r  P The real cost of capital depends positively on: . the relative price of capital . the real interest rate . the depreciation rate CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 11 4
  5. 04/01/2016 The rental firm’s profit rate A firm’s net investment depends on its profit rate: R PP Profit rate = KK r  = MPK r  PPP . If profit rate > 0, then increasing K is profitable . If profit rate < 0, then the firm increases profits by reducing its capital stock. (Firm reduces K by not replacing it as it depreciates.) CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 12 Net investment & gross investment Hence, net investment = K In MPK P K P r  where In[ ] is a function that shows how net investment responds to the incentive to invest. Total spending on business fixed investment equals net investment plus replacement of depreciated K: gross investment KK  In MPK P K P r   K CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 13 The investment function I In MPK P K P r   K An increase in r r . raises the cost of capital reduces the . r2 profit rate r . and reduces 1 investment: I I2 I1 CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 14 5
  6. 04/01/2016 The investment function I In MPK P K P r   K An increase in MPK r or decrease in PK/P . increases the profit rate . increases investment at any r1 given interest rate I . shifts I curve to I I the right. 1 2 CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 15 Taxes and investment Two of the most important taxes affecting investment: 1. Corporate income tax 2. Investment tax credit CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 16 Corporate Income Tax: A tax on profits Impact on investment depends on definition of “profit” . In our definition (rental price minus cost of capital), depreciation cost is measured using current price of capital, and the CIT would not affect investment . But, the legal definition uses the historical price of capital. . If PK rises over time, then the legal definition understates the true cost and overstates profit, so firms could be taxed even if their true economic profit is zero. Thus, corporate income tax discourages investment. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 17 6
  7. 04/01/2016 The Investment Tax Credit (ITC) . The ITC reduces a firm’s taxes by a certain amount for each dollar it spends on capital. . Hence, the ITC effectively reduces PK which increases the profit rate and the incentive to invest. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 18 Tobin’s q Market value of installed capital q Replacement cost of installed capital . numerator: the stock market value of the economy’s capital stock. . denominator: the actual cost to replace the capital goods that were purchased when the stock was issued. . If q > 1, firms buy more capital to raise the market value of their firms. . If q cost of capital, then profit rate is high, which drives up the stock market value of the firms, which implies a high value of q. . If MPK < cost of capital, then firms are incurring losses, so their stock market values fall, so q is low. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 20 7
  8. 04/01/2016 The stock market and GDP Reasons for a relationship between the stock market and GDP: 1. A wave of pessimism about future profitability of capital would . cause stock prices to fall . cause Tobin’s q to fall . shift the investment function down . cause a negative aggregate demand shock CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 21 The stock market and GDP Reasons for a relationship between the stock market and GDP: 2. A fall in stock prices would . reduce household wealth . shift the consumption function down . cause a negative aggregate demand shock CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 22 The stock market and GDP Reasons for a relationship between the stock market and GDP: 3. A fall in stock prices might reflect bad news about technological progress and long-run economic growth. This implies that aggregate supply and full-employment output will be expanding more slowly than people had expected. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 23 8
  9. 04/01/2016 The stock market and GDP Percent 50 Real GDP (right scale) 10 Percent change 40 8 change from from 30 6 1 year 1 year earlier 20 4 earlier 10 2 0 0 -10 -2 -20 -4 Stock prices (left scale) -30 -6 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 24 Alternative views of the stock market: The Efficient Markets Hypothesis . Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH): The market price of a company’s stock is the fully rational valuation of the company, given current information about the company’s business prospects. . Stock market is informationally efficient: each stock price reflects all available information about the stock. . Implies that stock prices should follow a random walk (be unpredictable), and should only change as new information arrives. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 25 Alternative views of the stock market: Keynes’s “beauty contest” . Idea based on newspaper beauty contest in which a reader wins a prize if he/she picks the women most frequently selected by other readers as most beautiful. . Keynes proposed that stock prices reflect people’s views about what other people think will happen to stock prices; the best investors could outguess mass psychology. . Keynes believed stock prices reflect irrational waves of pessimism/optimism (“animal spirits”). CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 26 9
  10. 04/01/2016 Alternative views of the stock market: EMH vs. Keynes’s beauty contest Both views persist. . There is evidence for the EMH and random-walk theory (see p.498). . Yet, some stock market movements do not seem to rationally reflect new information. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 27 Financing constraints . Neoclassical theory assumes firms can borrow to buy capital whenever doing so is profitable. . But some firms face financing constraints: limits on the amounts they can borrow (or otherwise raise in financial markets). . A recession reduces current profits. If future profits expected to be high, investment might be worthwhile. But if firm faces financing constraints and current profits are low, firm might be unable to obtain funds. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 28 Residential investment . The flow of new residential investment, IH , depends on the relative price of housing PH /P. . PH /P determined by supply and demand in the market for existing houses. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 29 10
  11. 04/01/2016 How residential investment is determined (a) The market for housing P H Supply Supply and demand for P houses determines the equilib. price of houses. The equilibrium price of houses then determines residential investment: Demand KH Stock of housing capital CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 30 How residential investment is determined (a) The market for housing (b) The supply of new housing P P H Supply H P P Supply Demand KH IH Stock of Flow of residential housing capital investment CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 31 How residential investment responds to a fall in interest rates (a) The market for housing (b) The supply of new housing P P H Supply H P P Supply Demand KH IH Stock of Flow of residential housing capital investment CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 32 11
  12. 04/01/2016 The tax treatment of housing . The tax code, in effect, subsidizes home ownership by allowing people to deduct mortgage interest. . The deduction applies to the nominal mortgage rate, so this subsidy is higher when inflation and nominal mortgage rates are high than when they are low. . Some economists think this subsidy causes over-investment in housing relative to other forms of capital . But eliminating the mortgage interest deduction would be politically difficult. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 33 Inventory investment Inventory investment is only about 1% of GDP. Yet, in the typical recession, more than half of the fall in spending is due to a fall in inventory investment. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 34 Motives for holding inventories 1. production smoothing Sales fluctuate, but many firms find it cheaper to produce at a steady rate. . When sales production, inventories fall. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 35 12
  13. 04/01/2016 Motives for holding inventories 1. production smoothing 2. inventories as a factor of production Inventories allow some firms to operate more efficiently. . samples for retail sales purposes . spare parts for when machines break down CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 36 Motives for holding inventories 1. production smoothing 2. inventories as a factor of production 3. stock-out avoidance To prevent lost sales when demand is higher than expected. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 37 Motives for holding inventories 1. production smoothing 2. inventories as a factor of production 3. stock-out avoidance 4. work in process Goods not yet completed are counted in inventory. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 38 13
  14. 04/01/2016 The Accelerator Model A simple theory that explains the behavior of inventory investment, without endorsing any particular motive CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 39 The Accelerator Model . Notation: N = stock of inventories N = inventory investment . Assume: Firms hold a stock of inventories proportional to their output N = Y, where  is an exogenous parameter reflecting firms’ desired stock of inventory as a proportion of output. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 40 The Accelerator Model Result: N =  Y Inventory investment is proportional to the change in output. . When output is rising, firms increase inventories. . When output is falling, firms allow their inventories to run down. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 41 14
  15. 04/01/2016 Evidence for the Accelerator Model Inventory 100 investment 1998 80 1984 (billions of 1967 1978 1996 60 dollars) 40 1974 1996 20 2004 0 1983 -20 1982 2001 -40 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Change in real GDP (billions of 1996 dollars) CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 42 Inventories and the real interest rate . The opportunity cost of holding goods in inventory: the interest that could have been earned on the revenue from selling those goods. . Hence, inventory investment depends on the real interest rate. . Example: High interest rates in the 1980s motivated many firms to adopt just-in-time production, which is designed to reduce inventories. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment slide 43 Chapter Summary 1. All types of investment depend negatively on the real interest rate. 2. Things that shift the investment function: . Technological improvements raise MPK and raise business fixed investment. . Increase in population raises demand for, price of housing and raises residential investment. . Economic policies (corporate income tax, investment tax credit) alter incentives to invest. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment CHAPTER 17 Investment slide 44 15
  16. 04/01/2016 Chapter Summary 3. Investment is the most volatile component of GDP over the business cycle. . Fluctuations in employment affect the MPK and the incentive for business fixed investment. . Fluctuations in income affect demand for, price of housing and the incentive for residential investment. . Fluctuations in output affect planned & unplanned inventory investment. CHƯƠNG 17 Đầu tư - Investment CHAPTER 17 Investment slide 45 16